Rami Arieli: "The Laser Adventure" Table of Content
Lasers and their applications - Table of Contents
1. Introduction - Laser Radiation and its properties.
1.1 Electromagnetic radiation - in vacuum and in matter.
1.2 Properties of laser radiation - Monochromaticity, Directionality, Coherence.
2. Laser Mechanism.
2.1 Bohr model of an atom.
2.2 Photons and Energy levels diagrams.
2.3 Absorption of electromagnetic radiation.
2.4 Spontaneous emission of electromagnetic radiation.
2.5 Thermodynamic equilibrium.
2.6 Population inversion.
2.7 Stimulated emission.
2.8 Rate equations.
2.9 Stimulated transitions.
2.10 Amplification.
2.11 3 level laser.
2.12 4 level laser.
3. Laser system.
3.1 Active medium.
3.2 Excitation mechanism.
3.3 Feedback mechanism.
3.4 Output coupler.
3.5 Interactive Demonstration.
4. Optical cavity and oscillation modes.
4.1 Standing waves.
4.2 Longitudinal modes in a laser.
4.3 Transverse modes in a laser.
4.4 Optical Cavity.
5. Amplification in a laser - Laser Gain.
5.1 Fluorescence line shape.
5.2 Amplification in a closed loop path between the mirrors of the optical cavity.
5.3 "Hole burning" in the amplification curve.
6. Laser types and their characteristics.
Laser types introduction
6.1 Gas lasers:
Atom Gas:
6.1.1 Helium-Neon Laser (He-Ne).
6.1.2 Metal Vapor Laser (Copper, Gold).
6.1.3 Helium Cadmium Laser (He-Cd).
Ion Gas:
6.1.4 Argon Ion Laser (Ar+).
6.1.5 Krypton Laser (Kr+).
Molecular Gas:
6.1.6 Carbon Dioxide Laser (CO2).
6.1.7 Nitrogen Laser (N2).
6.1.8 Excimer Laser.
6.1.9 Chemical Laser.
6.1.10 Far Infra-Red Laser (FIR).
6.2 Solid State lasers:
6.2.1 Ruby Laser.
6.2.2 Neodimium YAG and Nd Glass Laser.
6.2.3 Alexandrite Laser.
6.2.4 Color Center Laser.
6.2.5 Titanium Sapphire Laser.
6.3 Diode Laser (Semiconductor Laser, Injection Laser).
6.4 Dye Laser (Liquid).
6.5 Special Lasers:
6.5.1 Free Electron Laser (FEL).
6.5.2 X Ray Laser.
7. Characteristics of Laser Radiation.
7.0 Radiometry and measurement of Electromagnetic Radiation.
7.1 Spatial Energy Distribution at the Laser Output.
7.2 Laser Beam Divergence and Focusing Capability.
7.3 Pulsed Radiation.
7.4 Special Mechanisms for creating Pulses ("Q" switch and Mode Lock).
7.5 Polarization of Electromagnetic Radiation.
8. Control of the Characteristics of Laser Radiation.
8.1 Control of spatial properties of the beam.
8.2 Control of the wavelength.
8.3 Choosing a specific longitudinal mode with etalon.
9. Laser Applications.
9.1 Industrial applications.
9.1.1 Accurate measurements (Distance, Movement, Interferometry).
9.1.2 Straight line marking, or plan of reference.
9.1.3 Material working (cutting, welding, hardening, melting, evaporating, photolithography, etc.).
9.1.4 Spectral analysis.
9.2 Medical applications.
9.2.1 Laser surgery.
9.2.2 Laser in diagnostic medicine, and in combination with drugs.
9.2.3 Soft lasers (Wound healing, pain relief, cosmetic applications).
9.3 Military applications.
9.3.1 Laser range-finder.
9.3.2 Target designation.
9.3.3 Laser weapons ("Star War").
9.3.4 Laser blinding for man and sensitive equipment.
9.4 Daily applications
9.4.1 Compact disk - Optical storage of information.
9.4.2 Laser printer.
9.4.3 Optical disc drives.
9.4.4 Optical computer.
9.4.5 Bar code scanner.
9.4.6 Holograms against forgery (on credit cards, money, special goods, etc.).
9.4.7 Fiber optic communications.
9.4.8 Free space communications.
9.4.9 Laser shows (Lasarium) (in discotheques and open theaters).
9.4.10 Holograms in exhibits and museums.
9.4.11 Kinetic sculptures.
9.5 Scientific research applications.
9.5.1 Spectroscopy.
9.5.2 Laser (inertial) fusion.
9.5.3 Very short pulses (10-15 femtosec).
9.5.4 Laser cooling of atoms.
9.5.5 Study of the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter.
9.6 Special applications.
9.6.1 Energy transport in space.
9.6.2 Laser gyroscope.
9.6.3 Fiber laser.
10. Holography.
10.0 Holography.
10.1 Coherence of Light.
10.2 Principles of holographic photography.
10.3 Hologram types.
10.4 Applications of holograms.
10.5 Medium for recording Holograms.

Interactive Map of Laser Types.
Interactive Map of Laser Applications.
Back to Index.
Glossary of Laser Terms:
Appendix: Safe Use of Lasers.
Laboratory Experiments.
For further reading List of Books on Lasers.
Links to other laser sites on the Web.

About the Project.